【读时报 看世界】第一期:轮椅上的霍金如何收获全球迷妹迷弟

裘学资讯 2018-12-05 16:29:07

About the author

荔枝(Lizzy)老师

裘学和艾文教研中心负责人,十年英语教学教研经验,专业能力强;

爱阅读、迷美剧,常旅行,还是吃货一枚,外表软妹子,内心女汉子。

3月14日,科学巨人,全球知名物理学家霍金与世长逝,享年76岁。这个曾在轮椅上漫游宇宙,思考宇宙的起源的伟大宇宙学家,选择在爱因斯坦诞辰日告别世界,引得全球无数人为他哀悼。


荔枝(Lizzy)的朋友圈里,大家也都沉浸在惋惜中,转发了篇篇细数霍金生平、贡献的文章。即便我们大都是物理白痴,霍金研究的领域于我等凡夫俗子太过高深,大都也从未拜读过他的任何一本巨作,却都纷纷仰望这个伟人,隔洋为他打call。自然,绝非只因为他在物理学、天文学上的贡献,他留给我们的岂止于此。那么轮椅上的霍金如何收获全球迷妹迷弟呢?他又教会我们什么呢?

接下来,荔枝就带大家进入读报第一期,阅读《纽约时报》Dennis Overbye的刊文,一起读读“那些霍金教给我们的事”。

Stephen Hawking, the English cosmologist(宇宙学家) and black hole maven, liked to say he was born 300 years to the day after Galileo died, and he died Wednesday, 139 years after Albert Einstein was born.

喜欢说自己出生在伽利略300周年忌日的英国宇宙学家、黑洞专家斯蒂芬·霍金(Stephen Hawking)于周三去世,这一天正好是阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦(Albert Einstein)的139周年诞辰。


That was a fitting bookend.

☑这是                                    


In the popular press, he was often referred to as the greatest physicist since Einstein. That, he always said, was media hype, driven by the public’s thirst for heroes.

在大众媒体上,霍金常被称作继爱因斯坦之后最伟大的物理学家。他总说这是媒体的炒作,是受公众渴望英雄的驱使。


As someone who might have contributed in some small way over the years to this impression, I have to say I agree. History will pass judgment on that dubious and problematic distinction.

作为一个多年来或许亦曾为这种印象做出过些微贡献的人,我不得不说我同意他的观点。历史会......


But Hawking’s life was Einsteinian and he was a hero, not just for what he taught about the universe, but for what he taught us about how to live.

☑但霍金的一生是爱因斯坦式的。他是              。


Whether or not he overturned the universe, he did overturn our imaginations. To the public, however, he was, in Homer Simpson’s words, “the wheelchair guy,” who despite being slowly paralyzed by Lou Gehrig’s disease (葛雷克氏症), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(肌萎缩性脊髓侧索硬化症), to the point where he could move only an eyeball, roamed the world and figuratively(象征性地) the universe, married twice, fathered three children, wrote best-sellers and nurtured generations of graduate students.

☑无论                 。但在公众眼里,用霍默·辛普森(Homer Simpson)的话说,他是“那个坐在轮椅里的家伙”。尽管他因葛雷克氏症(Lou Gehrig's disease),又名肌萎缩性脊髓侧索硬化症而慢慢瘫痪,最终只能移动一个眼球,他却漫游了世界和宇宙(象征性地),结了两次婚,育有三个孩子,写出多本畅销书,还培养了一代又一代研究生。

搞掂生词Nail the Words

1. maven n. 专家,大佬(MAVEN还是美国航天局的MAVEN航天器,即Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission火星大气与挥发物演化任务的缩写 大写的厉害啊)

2. bookend n 我们常用的书档(这里延伸为“结束,终点”的意思)

3. media hype 媒体炒作(hype很好记,发音/haɪp/,“吹捧的很高”,就是“炒作,大肆宣扬”

4. be referred to... 被视为,指的是(e.g. he was often referred to as the greatest physicist since Einstein.被称作继爱因斯坦之后最伟大的物理学家

5. dubious adj. 可疑的,怀疑的(dub是傻瓜的意思,傻瓜才会信你

6. problematic adj. 有疑问的,不确定的(problem的形容词)

7. distinction n. 区别,卓越(区别于常人的,因此有“卓越,超群”之意)

8. paralyzed adj. 瘫痪的(paralyze v., paralysis n.)

9. roam v. 漫步,漫游(漫游费就是roaming charge)

10. nurture v. 培养,滋养(e.g. nurture children, plants, ideas;先天还是后天,遗传还是环境就用nature or nurture表示)

2009年,美国总统奥巴马授予霍金自由勋章

 CHIP SOMODEVILLA/GETTY IMAGES NORTH AMERICA


He was the kind of guy who showed up at his own 60th birthday party with a broken leg after flipping his wheelchair trying to take a street corner too fast, a guy whose eyes lit up with a mischievous grin at good and bad jokes. He mingled with kings and presidents and the Dallas Cowboys cheerleaders. He had hoped someday to take a trip to the edge of space on Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic spaceship.

☑他是那种在推着轮椅试图转过街角时因为速度太快而摔断腿后,还会出现在自己60岁生日聚会上的人;               。他的朋友里有国王和总统,也有达拉斯牛仔队(Dallas Cowboys)的拉拉队员。他希望有一天能搭乘理查德·布兰森(Richard Branson)的维珍银河(Virgin Galactic)公司的宇宙飞船去往宇宙边缘。


He preferred to be called Stephen. He was proud of being a family man.

他喜欢别人叫他斯蒂芬。他为自己是一个顾家的男人感到自豪。


“His sense of humor was legendary,” said Kip Thorne, his old friend and recent Nobel laureate荣誉者,戴桂冠的人 from Caltech, with whom he collaborated on the seeds of what would become the movie “Interstellar.” “When he started a sentence, laboriously on his computer, I never knew whether it would end in a deep pearl of wisdom or an off-the-wall joke,” Thorne said in an email.

“他的幽默感赫赫有名,”霍金在加州理工学院(Caltech)的老朋友,最近获得诺贝尔奖的基普·索恩(Kip Thorne)说。他和索恩一起合作,播下了电影《星际穿越》(Interstellar)的种子。“当他费力地在用他的电脑开始说一句话的时候,我从来不知道它最后会是一句如深海珍珠般的智慧之语,还是一个稀奇古怪的笑话,”索恩在一封电子邮件中写道。


To scientists, however, he will be forever known for finding a relation between gravity — in the form of Einstein’s general theory of relativity 广义相对论)— that bends the cosmos and determines its destiny and the atomic randomness随机性 that lives inside it, swept helplessly along in the river of time.

但对科学家来说,霍金会被永远铭记,是因为他发现了让宇宙发生弯曲,并决定着宇宙命运的引力(以爱因斯坦广义相对论的形式)与宇宙中被无助地卷入时间长河中的原子的随机性之间的关系。


Like Einstein, and Galileo, he did his greatest work on gravity, a force we all feel in our bones, a force that, Einstein decreed认定, would even bend starlight, leaving, “lights all askew in the heavens.”

与爱因斯坦和伽利略一样,他最大的贡献是在引力方面。引力是我们所有人都能在骨子里感受到的一种力量。爱因斯坦认定,引力甚至会让星光发生弯曲,造成“天空中的所有光线都是偏斜的”。

搞掂生词Nail the Words

11. mischievous n. 淘气的(这可是naughty的高级用法,赶紧记下来显摆显摆)

12. grin n.\ v. 咧嘴笑(试着读一下单词,是不是不由自主地咧嘴笑啦)

13. mingle with 交往,混合

14. collaborate v. 合作(co-表示“共同”,比如co-worker同事,labor劳动,共同的劳动就是“合作”)

15. laboriously adv. 辛苦滴(labor劳动,劳力)

16. off-the-wall 疯狂的(潮牌VANS的广告就是Off the wall疯狂)

17. the cosmos 宇宙(cosmic宇宙的)

18. destiny n. 命运(Embrace your destiny! 认命吧!) 

19. atomic adj.原子的(atom原子,atomic energy核能,atomic weapon核武器)

20. askew adj.\ adv. 斜的,错误的

As a result, Hawking became an icon of mystery and curiosity and determination to understand this place we are in.

因此,霍金象征着神秘、好奇,以及了解我们所处之地的决心。


He was only 22, a lackadaisical graduate student, when he was given a diagnosis of Lou Gehrig’s disease, which usually kills in two to five years. By the time he died, he had lived with it for half a century, and doctors had added the word “atypical(非典型)” to his diagnosis. As if that explained anything at all.

被诊断患上葛雷克氏症时,霍金才22岁。彼时的他还是一个懒散的研究生。葛雷克氏症的患者通常会在两到五年内死亡。但到霍金去世时,他已经带病活过了半个世纪。医生在他的诊断结果中加进了“非典型”这个词。仿佛这解释了什么似的。


I was an assistant typesetter at Sky and Telescope magazine, hungry for action, when I first glimpsed Hawking whirring(飞驰而过,呼呼声) in his electric wheelchair through a ballroom in Boston’s Copley Plaza Hotel in 1976. It struck me as the most dramatic moment I had experienced in science. I felt like I had somehow known him forever. The genius, the brilliant mind trapped in a wrecked body, are archetypes(原型) of literature and folklore(民间传说).

☑1976年,当我第一次在波士顿科普利广场酒店的一间宴会厅看到坐着电动轮椅疾驶而过的霍金时,我还是《天空与望远镜》(Sky and Telescope)杂志的一名渴望干一番大事业的助理排字员。那是我               。不知何故,我感觉自己与他早已相识。一个天才,


Of course, I didn’t know him at all.

当然,我根本不认识他。


He was there to talk about black holes, the scariest things that otherwise sober physicists had ever dreamed up. Black holes, objects so dense that not even light can escape them, are the most extreme manifestations(表现) of gravity. You didn’t need to understand the mathematics to grasp the notion of gaping maws sitting at the bottoms of galaxies or at the end of time, or the six-foot-deep hole with your own name on it.

☑他要讲的话题是黑洞,那是                。黑洞,密度大到连光都无法逃脱的物体,是万有引力最极端的表现形式。要理解这个概念并不需要懂数学,这就是一个在宇宙的尽头、在时间的终点裂开的无底深渊,或是一个有你名字的、纵深六英尺的洞。

搞掂生词Nail the Words

21. icon n. 偶像,标志

22. lackadaisical adj. 懒洋洋的(lack a day缺了一天,lack a daisy缺了一朵雏菊太阳菊,一天都没精神)

23. diagnosis n. 诊断,确诊(diagnose v.)

24. glimpse v. 瞥见(love at first glimpse一见钟情)

25. wrecked adj. 残疾的,失事的(美国俚语里,表示“喝醉了”,车祸现场嘛)

26. sober adj. 清醒的,镇静的(口语里,sober down=calm down冷静下来)

27. dense adj. 密的,稠密的(密度就是density)

28. grasp 抓住,掌握,了解

29. maw无底洞(本意是人的胃,人的胃口就像无底洞,喂不饱的)

30. galaxy 银河(三星的Galaxy,还有之前大热的银河护卫队Guardians of the Galaxy)

Einstein himself had rejected the notion, but in the early 1970s astronomers were finding black-hole candidates all over the sky. The universe was rife with death.

☑爱因斯坦本人对这个概念拒不接受,但在1970年代初,天文学家在天上发现了许多有可能是黑洞的东西。整个宇宙        


In my own hopelessly romantic eyes, Hawking in the Copley Plaza will always be St. George in a wheelchair, sallying forth to slay the black-hole dragon.

在我浪漫得无可救药的眼中,科普利广场的霍金永远都会是坐着轮椅的圣乔治,出击向前,砍向黑洞这条巨龙。


In intricate calculations that even his friends doubted he could perform, Hawking discovered that black holes were not black at all when quantum rules(量子定则) were taken into consideration, but were in fact fountains of energy, fizzing(慢慢涌出,冒泡) faintly with particles(粒子) and radiation(辐射). Over vast eons they would eventually explode, giving back to the universe all the mass and energy that had once disappeared, in a sort of cosmic reincarnation.

在连他朋友都不相信他能演算成功的复杂计算中,霍金发现,如果考虑到量子定则,黑洞其实根本不黑,而是一眼能量之泉,粒子和辐射从里面缓缓涌出。在漫长的时间之后,它们最终会发生爆炸,将所有一度消失的质量与能量还给宇宙,仿佛一场宇宙的转世。


In a statement that felt like it was about much more than just mathematics, Dennis Sciama, Hawking’s former Cambridge professor, called Hawking’s discover “the most beautiful paper” in the history of physics. St. George had slain the dragon.

在一则声明中,曾是霍金在剑桥的教授的丹尼斯·夏马(Dennis Sciama)感到这远非只是数学,他把霍金的发现称为物理学史上“最美的文章”。圣乔治杀死了巨龙


He could talk back then and a colleague and I spent some time after his speech sticking a pencil in his tie to make it stand up, in defiance of gravity.

当时他还能够说话,在听完他的演讲后,我和一位同事花了些时间往他的领带里塞了支铅笔,让领带立起来,公然违抗地心引力。


My article about all this got me promoted at the magazine. A year later, I was on a plane to England to do an in-depth profile人物介绍. Later on, Hawking was one of the main characters in my book, “Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos.”

我就这些事写下的文章让我在杂志社得到了提拔。一年后,我为了写一篇人物特稿去了英国。后来,霍金成为了我那本《环宇孤心》(Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos)中的主要人物之一。

搞掂生词Nail the Words

31. be rife with充斥着,充满着

32. sally v. 冲出去(想不到Sally这女孩子还真莽撞!)

33. slay v. 屠杀

34. intricate adj. 复杂的

35. take into consideration=consider 考虑

36. eon n. 一世,世世(复数eons: on and on and on生生世世)

37. mass n. 大量,质量(mass media大众媒体)

38. reincarnation n. 转世,化身(incarnation化身,re-表示重新)

39. defiance n. 反抗,蔑视(defy v. 莎士比亚在他的戏剧里经常用到defy。比如《理查二世》中的Thomas说到“...I do defy him, and I spit at him, call him a slanderous coward and a villain我藐视他,唾弃他,他就是一个诽谤者,一个胆小鬼,一个无赖”。莎翁还在《仲夏夜之梦》中将Hermia描述成一个defiant girl一个叛逆的,藐视传统的女孩 )

40. in-depth 深入的(新闻高频词:in-depth talk and cooperation深入的交谈与合作)

He didn’t always appreciate the attention. He was mad when he came home one day in Cambridge and found me interviewing Jane, his wife at the time. And frustrated by my obstinate refusal to understand some point of quantum physics (that I still don’t understand), he ran over my toes in an elevator with his wheelchair.

☑他             。有一天,当他回到剑桥的家中,发现我在采访当时的妻子简,他十分生气。有一次,我执拗地拒绝理解(至今也无法理解)量子物理学中的某些主张,他一气之下在电梯里用轮椅碾过了我的脚趾。


As he continued to outlive the odds and progressed from a cane to a wheelchair and from grunting嘟哝,咕哝声 to a computerized voice synthesizer电脑语音合成器 operated first by a thumb and then by an eyeball, it was hard not to think of him as his own best metaphor, a man with one foot in his own black hole.

☑他不断地突破预期,从拐杖变为轮椅,从含糊的话语变成先是靠一根拇指、后来靠一只眼球控制的电脑语音合成器。这让人                


But Hawking was not interested in being anyone’s metaphor. “I’ve always found a way to communicate,” he once told me. He was not about to surrender his narrative叙述,叙事) or anything else without a good fight绝不会轻易. (By DENNIS OVERBYE

但霍金对成为任何人的比喻并不感兴趣。“我总能找到一种方式来交流,”他有一次对我说。他不会轻易放弃自己的叙事,或者是其他东西,不会束手就擒。作者:DENNIS OVERBYE

搞掂生词Nail the Words

41. obstinate adj. 顽固的

42. outlive 活过,活得久于... 

43. the odds 机会,预期,可能性(odd奇数,奇怪的 )

44. metaphor n. 比喻(这个单词印象最深的就是在Friends老友记里Rachel咆哮着说“It’s a metaphor, Daddy.”)

45. surrender v. 投降(席琳迪翁的名曲I Surrender,后被林志炫翻唱。)

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文 化 角

Cultural corner

Caltech


California Institute of Technology 加州理工学院,在世界科技界久负盛名,其优势学科主要是物理学、化学、天文学和空间学,位列15-16年世界大学学术排名物理学世界第5、化学第4,还协助美国航空航天局负责管理著名的喷气推进实验室。在2012到2016年连续5年位列泰晤士高等教育世界大学排名世界第一,17-18年世界第三。连讲述科学天才怪咖的美剧《生活大爆炸》也把加州理工为了背景地。我们的霍金也曾在《生活大爆炸》客串7次。



Interstellar

《星际穿越》,科幻导演诺兰执导的科幻冒险电影,基于知名知名理论物理学家,诺贝尔奖得主基普索恩(Kip Thorne)的黑洞理论经过合理演化之后,加入人物情节改编而成的。主要讲述了一对探险家利用他们针对虫洞的新发现,超越人类对太空旅行的极限,从而开始在广袤的宇宙中进行星际航行的故事。


St. George

圣乔治,基督教的著名烈士、圣人。经常以屠龙英雄的形象出现。据信圣乔治是罗马帝国时代生活在近东地区的一位基督徒。他因为成功杀死一条利比亚地区的毒龙而深受爱戴。现在,在英国不少地方都可以看到一位身穿盔甲的骑马武士屠龙的图案,这就是圣乔治。毒龙在水源旁筑了巢。每一天,他们要给龙献祭两头绵羊,当绵羊献祭完之后,就必须让一个少女代替。民众通过抽签选择牺牲品。有一天,选到了公主。国王乞求公民,希望选择别人来代替公主,但没有用。公主被送到龙巢之时,圣乔治旅行到了这个地方。他凭借着信仰之力,屠龙救公主。

圣乔治是英格兰文化的重要部分。按照基督教会的传统,每年的4月23日是圣乔治的纪念日(St. George’s Day),在圣乔治日,人们会买玫瑰送给爱人,再将一本书籍送给孩子。如果大家在这一天前后到英格兰地区,你会看到教堂、酒馆,甚或汽车外都会挂上有一个红色十字的白色旗帜,这就是圣乔治旗。


小小翻译家

Little translator

1. That was a fitting bookend.

2. History will pass judgment on that dubious and problematic distinction.

3. he was a hero, not just for what he taught about the universe, but for what he taught us about how to live.

4. Whether or not he overturned the universe, he did overturn our imaginations.

5. a guy whose eyes lit up with a mischievous grin at good and bad jokes

6. It struck me as the most dramatic moment I had experienced in science. 

7. He was there to talk about black holes, the scariest things that otherwise sober physicists had ever dreamed up.

8. The universe was rife with death.

9. He didn’t always appreciate the attention.

10. it was hard not to think of him as his own best metaphor, a man with one foot in his own black hole.

参考翻译见下期哦~


下期预告

喜欢第一期的干货吗?有没有觉得学完很满足充实?

下期预告呢?

哈,哈,哈!!(请模仿霍金在《生活大爆炸》里的台词)

预告有下期,时间无预告哦!

毕竟荔枝档期太满啦,人又就是这么任性,男神女神也不是那么容易碰到的,写文也是要看心情。

Anyway,荔枝一定会不定期更新读报的!第二期just around the corner!

大家好好期待着吧!!!

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